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A Quick Guide To Common Writing Abbreviations




Abbreviations are shortened versions of words or phrases. There are many abbreviations which are used frequently in English, most of which are derived from Latin. Infact, the word ‘abbreviation‘ is derived from the Latin word brevis, which means short.

You may be aware of many of the most common abbreviations used but I am sure you will find this list useful nevertheless 🙂

Please note, in the past all abbreviations had a full stop (period) at the end of it but this isn’t always the case now and sometimes the full stop is dropped. Also, many people recommend adding a comma after an abbreviation.

  • etc – Short for ‘et cetera‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘and other things‘ or ‘and so forth‘. Example : 4, 5, 6 etc.
  • i.e. – Short for ‘id est‘, which is the Latin term for ‘that is‘ or ‘in other words‘. Example : I went back to writing on my usual blogging device i.e. my laptop. This abbreviation is commonly confused with e.g. (and vice-versa).
  • e.g. – Short for ‘exempli gratia‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘for example‘. Example : The man was rich enough to buy his own basketball team e.g. the New York Knicks.
  • p.s. – Short for ‘post scriptum‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘after writing‘. It is an afterword which is added at the end of a text. Example : p.s. I wrote this article with my left hand. Additional afterwords add an extra P ie. p.s., p.p.s.,p.p.p.s. etc.
  • N.B. – Short for ‘Nota bene‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘note well‘. It’s used to remind the reader not to forget something important. Example : N.B. Always make sure you wash your hands before you leave the bathroom!
  • cf. – Short for ‘confer‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘compare‘ or ‘consult‘. It is very common in academic papers, journals and other types of reference publications e.g. dictionaries. It is used to draw the readers attention to additional information. Example : cf. page 405.
  • p.p. – Short for ‘per procurationem‘ (‘per pro‘), which is the Latin for ‘to behalf of‘. It is used frequently in business letters. For example, a secretary sending out a letter on behalf of the company CEO would p.p. her name to the bottom of it to show that they have written the letter on behalf of the CEO.
  • viz. – Short for ‘videlicit‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘it is permitted to see‘, ‘as befitting‘ or ‘as is pleasing to‘. In English it is usually read as ‘namely‘ and is mostly used in the same way as i.e., Example : He was sent to the principles office viz. Mr Jones.
  • et al. – Short for ‘et alii‘ which is the Latin phrase for ‘and others‘. ‘Alii‘ is the masculine form so when referring to a female you should use ‘et aliae‘. The neutral form ‘et alia‘ can be used when referring to a lot of people. Example : The song proved to be popular with football fans et al.
  • Q.E.D. – Short for ‘quod erat demonstrandum‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘which was to be proved‘. It is used frequently in Mathematics. Example : 4X=12 therefore X=3 Q.E.D.
  • M.O. – Short for ‘modus operandi, which is the Latin phrase for ‘mode of operation‘ or ‘method of working‘. It is common to use this phrase to describe somones habits. Example : David’s M.O. was to have an apple in the morning every day.
  • q.v. – Short for ‘quod vide‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘which see‘. It allows the writer to direct the reader to another part of the text or book (i.e. cross reference). Example : q.v. chapter 7.
  • i.a. – Short for ‘inter alia‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘among other things‘.
  • c. – Short for ‘circa‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘about‘ or ‘around‘. It is sometimes abbreviated to ca. Example : The book is thought to have been written c. 1650.
  • ibid – Short for ‘ibidem‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘the same place‘. It is used to provide a footnote at the end of text. ibid comes after the source it is referencing. Example : 10 ibid.
  • Id. – Short for ‘idem‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘the same‘. It is very similar to the term ibid. Example id. pager 4.
  • op.cit – Short for ‘pus citatum‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘from the cited work‘. It is usually used as a footnote to refer the reader to an older citation.
  • vs – Short for ‘versus‘, which is the Latin word for ‘against‘. Sometimes it is abbreviated as v.
  • S.O.S. – Short for ‘si opus sit‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘if there is need‘ or ‘if necessary‘.
  • Re – Short for ‘in re‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘in the matter of‘ or ‘concerning‘. Is used frequently in letters and emails.
  • a.m. – Short for ‘ante meridiem‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘before noon‘. Example : I’ll meet you at the cafe at 10 a.m.
  • p.m. – Short for ‘post meridiem‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘after noon‘ Example : I don’t finish work til 8 p.m.
  • A.D. – Short for ‘Anno Domini‘, which is Latin for ‘In the year of Our Lord‘.
  • C.V. – Short for ‘curriculum vitae‘, which is a Latin phrase for ‘course of life‘. It is commonly used to refer to someones resume.
  • p.a. – Short for ‘per annum‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘through a year‘.
  • per cent – Short for ‘per centum‘, which is the Latin phrase for ‘for each one hundred‘.
  • R.I.P. – Short for ‘requiescat in pace‘, which is the Latin for the phrase ‘may they rest in peace‘.

The above list was in no way exhaustive but I’m sure you will find it useful. Tomorrow I will be talking more about popular phrases which are derived from Latin so make sure you are subscribed to Blogging Tips 🙂

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Kevin Muldoon is a professional blogger with a love of travel. He writes regularly about topics such as WordPress, Blogging, Productivity and Social Media on his personal blog and provides support to bloggers at Rise Forums. He can also be found on Twitter @KevinMuldoon and .

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3 Rewarding Benefits for Bloggers to Consider Joining An Honor Society



Over approximately one million students are members of the National Honor Society (NHS). Many of which are likely bloggers, freelance writers, and/or have a passion for writing or pursuing their own path in life.

High school students with outstanding achievements are joining the organization every year. But you may not be familiar with the NHS and what it does, and also how it can benefit you as either a blogger, affiliate marketer, or an entrepreneur.

You may be asking, “should I join an honor society?” Is it really that important? Before you become an honor student yourself, you should weigh the benefits.

Here’s your guide to the benefits of the National Honor Society.

Should I Join an Honor Society?

In order to join the NHS, you’ll need to know what they do.

Established in 1921, the foundation recognizes students who have achieved excellence in several different ways. These include areas of service, leadership, character, and of course, scholarship.

Members need to meet certain criteria to join. Students who want to join should have at least a 3.0 on the GPA scale. They should also show great leadership and a commitment to volunteer work.

If you think you may be eligible, here are three rewarding reasons why you should join the NHS.

1. Making a Difference

One of the great aspects of the NHS is the opportunity to make a difference. Given the foundation’s emphasis on helping others, each student must meet a service hour requirement.

As a member, you’ll be a part of service projects whether individually or as a team.

This is not only an amazing way to get involved in your community but a way to meet new people. Volunteering opens up so many doors, personal and otherwise. It helps you find yourself and connect with people in the process.

The service you complete may also open other doors and interests for you along the way.

2. Building Your Resume

Every college and university knows what an NHS membership suggests about a student. This makes it a wonderful addition to your resume or college application. It makes you competitive and helps you stand out in a sea of students.

An NHS experience shows that you’re an outstanding citizen who’s engaged with the world. It shows that you have great academic standing and the potential to be a future leader. However, academics aren’t everything, and if you can compile all of your achievements and goals into an online resume website, you may win over some new audiences and personal opportunities as well.

Joining the NHS will help you turn your goals for the future into a reality and set your professional life into motion.

3. Developing Skills

To become an NHS student, you need to exhibit certain traits and character. But your experience as a member will also help you further develop your skills. The NHS is an excellent avenue for becoming even more well-rounded and capable.

The NHS helps students flex their skills as a leader and a part of a team. The volunteering component will help you develop great time management skills. It can also motivate you to maintain your good grades.

You’ll also learn a lot about networking and professionalism during the process. This will be indelibly valuable in the future.

Learn More

The answer to “should I join an honor society?” is a resounding yes. There are no downsides to becoming an honor student and so much to gain from the experience, and if you are thinking about launching a website or blog of your own, the experience and skills you will gain from such an environment and community will only help.

Not only does being in the NHS prepare you for what’s to come, but it’s also a nice way to celebrate what you’ve already worked so hard to accomplish.

To learn more about school and lifestyle tips, be sure to visit our blog.

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The Do’s and Don’ts of Writing Your Very First Blog Post



The Dos and Donts of Writing Your Very First Blog Post

The Dos and Donts of Writing Your Very First Blog Post

Your very first blog post is a very big deal.

For businesses, it’s their way of attracting more clients by creating content that resonates with your target audience.

For hobbyists, it’s their chance to of sharing to the world your thoughts and ideas about their topics of choice.

Either way, nothing validates your online identity more than a well-written blog post.

Therefore, you need to make the most of this opportunity by writing the best possible blog post. Assuming that you don’t have much experience in writing, you can always keep things simple by following the basic do’s and don’ts of writing a blog post for the very first time.

Do: Come up with a topic that your audience would like

The success of bloggers stems from the ability to determine what their audience wants to read. To reach their primary goals, bloggers must appeal to the need of their target readers for useful and relevant information. Doing so allows them to attract lots of visitors with the content they publish, resulting in increased conversion rates.

Therefore, you need to approach blogging deliberately. You can’t just pull a topic out of thin air and expect your audience to come in droves. You must find out what makes your readers ticks and what their wants and needs are.

That means research, research, and more research!

First, you need to come up with a reader persona that you will target for your post and the succeeding ones. The persona you will develop will embody your demographic such as age, gender, hobbies, and others. Researching these factors will help you refine how you will write your post and what you will write about. From here, unearthing blog post ideas to write about will become much more convenient for you.

Don’t: Veer away from your branding and persona

Your brand is what defines you online. Your audience will associate all your online activity with the brand you’ve developed. Part of your brand is the persona you project from the blog posts you will write.

The best blogs exhibit unique voices that set them apart from the rest. The Onion is popular for its tongue-in-cheek humor veiled in satire. Lifehacker is famous for producing informative blog content geared towards readers who want to find ways to simplify their lives.

The brand and persona these sites exude help bloggers develop consistency in their writing. By observing their persona on all the posts they write at all times, they allow readers to create a level of expectation every time you publish a post. By meeting their expectations with every post you write, you can develop a sustainable stream of blog traffic over a period.

Therefore, it is crucial that you develop a writing voice that resonates with your readers and then sticking with it. You need to play your brand and persona across all your blog posts, starting with the very first post you’ll be writing.

Do: Edit before publishing

Before hitting the “Publish” button, you need to make sure that there are no grammar mistakes and errors in your writing. Your command of the language is crucial if you want to send the right message to your readers.

A post that’s filled with errors will cause readers to leave your blog and possibly not read another post from you. If you can’t write correctly, then why should your audience read your posts?

Double-checking your post and reading it again can do wonders for your edits. It’s best to take time between finishing the post and reading it for review. The time allows you to get your mind off from writing so you will have a fresh perspective on the post, which lets you spot errors easier.

If you’re not comfortable with your editing skills, then you could use tools like Grammarly and Hemingway Editor. Both will make recommendations on how to tighten your sentences and improve your blog post. Keep in mind, however, that these tools are meant to complement your editing process and not replace it entirely.

Don’t: Worry about word count

If you’re counting words when writing your post, then you’re blogging for the wrong reasons.

When writing, your focus should be communicating ideas as clearly as possible.

For SEO reasons, you want your post to be as long as possible. According to the latest studies, your post should be at least 1,890 words if you want to rank on top of Google Search.

However, if you can’t reach that many numbers of words, you don’t have to beat yourself up about it. Having lots of words doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s a great post.

What’s more important is that you can share everything that your readers need to know about the topic. By focusing on the quality of the post and not the number of words, you can engage your audience and keep them longing for more.

Do: Promote your post

Promoting your post is not part of the writing process. However, part of your job as a full-fledged blogger is to be a marketer as well.

Sharing your first blog post is your step towards reaching out to your online audience. After all, your post won’t promote itself. You need to proactive share your blog post to the right channels, so you show it to as many people interested in your topic as possible.

One of the best ways to promote your post online is to hop on Facebook and Twitter.

“If you have created high-quality content on your blog then social media is a great way to your blog to go viral.” said Scott Chow of The Blog Starter.

You can also submit your post on platforms that allow you to reach out to your audience more effectively. I have detailed the best sites where you can send your post for promotion in this article.

Don’t: Set unrealistic goals

Starting at the bottom and working your way up to where thousands of blogs are also vying for the attention of your readers will be a tumultuous journey. Therefore, you have to curb your expectations as a blogger. It is ideal to set the bar with attainable goals in mind instead of aiming for the moon.

Don’t get me wrong – reaching thousands of visitors for your blog post in a day is not impossible. However, like catching lightning in a jar, it’s more improbable than anything else. In fact, this problem is what plagues most bloggers. They set high goals that are difficult to achieve. As a result, they get discouraged once they realize that they can’t fulfill them and stop blogging altogether.

Therefore, it’s always better to follow a tried-and-true template that you can sustain for a long period. You don’t want to be one of those flash-in-the-pan bloggers who fizzle out as fast as they started.

Did I miss any other tips for first-time bloggers in preparation for their very first post? Chime in with your advice by commenting below!

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4 Tips for Effectively Training New Hires and Freelance Writers



You’ve been interviewing prospective job candidates for weeks. Whether this has been for adding talent to your existing company, or if you’ve been looking for some qualified blog writers, the process is quite overwhelming, yet one that needs to take place. You’ve narrowed down the field, compared resumes and extended an offer. Soon, you’ll have a bright-eyed new employee walking through your door, eager to get started. Are you prepared for the onboarding process?

Handing each new employee, a packet to read at their desk doesn’t cut it these days. In order to help new hires hit the ground running with their duties and acclimate to your work environment, you’ll need to utilize more dynamic methods for effectively training new hires. Here are four tips to help you get started.

Prioritize Need-to-Know Material

Training includes a veritable avalanche of information—like a general company overview, employer-specific policies, human resources information and specific job duties. It’s your job to equip your team members with everything they need to thrive. So, where do you start? This is also usually simple enough when looking to hire freelance writers or new blog team members, as there are many online job boards that allow you to fill in the needs and requirements you are looking for, while also having the ability to weed out any leads that don’t fit.

Create an outline that breaks down different training sessions into manageable chunks. This way, you’ll provide some foresight to the new hires and keep them from getting overwhelmed. For example, on their first day, you could start with job-specific information: frequently used programs and files, chain of command within their team and department and the location of hotspots like bathrooms, break rooms, conference rooms, HR, etc. The next day, the new hire can easily see that they’ll be learning about a broad company and departmental overview, project management and communication best practices within the office. After that, they’ll tackle short- and long-term goals and KPIs that show they’re doing well in their new job.

Take it one day at a time, based on order of importance.

Make It Interactive and Engaging

Passive presentations make it all too easy for new hires to forget material almost as soon as they learn it. Remember, they’re encountering new information left and right. To make it stick, you’ll have to make it extra engaging. Delivering an interactive presentation with crowdsourcing tools like Poll Everywhere will wake them up, collect their honest thoughts and make them feel like part of the team right off the bat. Instead of listening to a one-way stream of information, new hires can grab their mobile devices and get involved.

Create a Longer-Term Plan

Whew, you survived the first day of training. Your newest batch of hires are basically onboard, right? Not so fast. You need a long-term plan to ensure a smooth process over time. One HR manager uses an onboarding checklist complete with agendas for the first week and first month—including future training sessions, group lunches and manager check-ins. This way, the employee knows that they’re not suddenly on their own after the first round of introductions; they have resources, a plan and scheduled times to ask questions and provide feedback.

Assign a Concrete Task

Training often feels theoretical for new hires; they’re left wondering “but how does this connect to my job?” One way to drive the points made in training home is to assign a relevant task after a learning session. It should relate to their daily duties and allow them to learn (and make mistakes) as they go. They will be able to put the principles they learned in general training into actual use on an actual assignment! At the end, a manager can go over the results with them in a helpful way, pointing out things they did well and how they can improve in the future.

These four tips for effectively training new hires should help you with the onboarding process, but be sure to experiment and come up with a system that works for your company. After all, onboarding is the first impression new employees get and it factors heavily into company culture. If you want to build a success blog, brand or business on the internet today, you need to make sure you are building a quality and talented team around you.

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